The result at Tannadice Park matched Celtic’s 9-0 win over Aberdeen in 2010-11 and was the biggest away victory in the competition’s history, beating their own 8-1 triumph at Dunfermline Athletic in 2005-06.
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A first-half hat trick by Japanese forward Kyogo Furuhashi and a treble by Israeli winger Liel Abada made up six of Celtic’s goals.
Furuhashi netted his third in added time in the opening period and Portuguese winger Jota scored to make it 4-0 at halftime.
Abada’s triple, Josip Juranovic and Carl Starfelt completed the rout.
Ange Postecoglou’s side leapfrogged Rangers into top spot in the table with 15 points from five matches.
Liverpool earned their first win of the season on Saturday against promoted Bournemouth, also winning 9-0 and equalling the record for the biggest Premier League victory.